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Intro: John 1:43-51 – 43 The following day Jesus wanted to go to Galilee, and He found Philip and said to him, “Follow Me.” 44 Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip found Nathanael and said to him, “We have found Him of whom Moses in the law, and also the prophets, wrote — Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” 46 And Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.” 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward Him, and said of him, “Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no deceit!” 48 Nathanael said to Him, “How do You know me?” Jesus answered and said to him, “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.” 49 Nathanael answered and said to Him, “Rabbi, You are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” 50 Jesus answered and said to him, “Because I said to you, ‘I saw you under the fig tree,’ do you believe? You will see greater things than these.” 51 And He said to him, “Most assuredly, I say to you, hereafter you shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of Man.”
I. Jesus’ Description of Nathaniel: Nathaniel was identified by Jesus as “an Israelite in whom is no deceit“. He was a genuine Israelite, and as such well understood the OT expectation of the coming Messiah. He knew all about God’s words to David in 2 Sam. 7. When given the information that Jesus was from Nazareth, he saw the seeming contradiction with what the prophets foretold about where the Messiah would be born.
A. But when Jesus miraculously showed him that He could know all things about him, Nathaniel became a believer. He make the first public confession of Jesus by a disciple.
II. Nathaniel’s Description of Jesus: What I want to notice is how Nathaniel describes Jesus: “Rabbi, You are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” These two titles come right out of God’s promise to David – Read this prophecy again from
A. 1 Chronicles 17:10-14 –Also I will subdue all your enemies. Furthermore I tell you that the Lord will build you a house. 11 And it shall be, when your days are fulfilled, when you must go to be with your fathers, that I will set up your seed after you, who will be of your sons; and I will establish his kingdom. 12 He shall build Me a house, and I will establish his throne forever. 13 I will be his Father, and he shall be My son; and I will not take My mercy away from him, as I took it from him who was before you. 14 And I will establish him in My house and in My kingdom forever; and his throne shall be established forever.”‘”
1. Not only did God promise the coming of a King, but this King would be God’s Son. What Nathaniel was confessing was… “You are the Messiah. You are the long-expected Jewish ruler that will bring deliverance for Israel and establish God’s rule over the nations.” Both the term Son of God and King of Israel were references for the Messiah. You can see it again in Psalm 2:2–7: Why do the nations rage, And the people plot a vain thing? 2 The kings of the earth set themselves, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the Lord and against His Anointed, saying, 3 “Let us break Their bonds in pieces And cast away Their cords from us.” 4 He who sits in the heavens shall laugh; The Lord shall hold them in derision. 5 Then He shall speak to them in His wrath, And distress them in His deep displeasure: 6 “Yet I have set My King On My holy hill of Zion.” 7 “I will declare the decree: The Lord has said to Me, ‘You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.
2. Interestingly, these two connected designations of the Messiah, from 2 Sam. 7, brought opposing reactions from the Israelites when applied to Jesus. They readily accepted Him as their long-awaited King, but His claim to be God’s Son (and making Himself equal with God) is what prompted their desire to kill Him. But the Son came to be their King.
III. The House of God and the House of David: You will notice in God’s promise to David (2 Sam. 7) that two houses are mentioned.
A. 2 Sam 7:13 – He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. The house of God that David’s son would build. This was fulfilled in Solomon’s construction of the temple. The glory of the Lord filled the temple. (2 Chron. 7:1-3) “So Solomon built the house, and finished it” (1 Kings 6:14)
B. 2 Sam 7:16 – And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever.”‘” The house of David that God would make. In 1 Chronicles it is revealed this way… 14 And I will establish him in My house and in My kingdom forever; and his throne shall be established forever.”‘ (1 Chronicles 17:14) The term house here refers to a household, family, ruling house or dynasty. After discussing the building of the temple, God promised to establish the house of David forever. It was in the house of David that the throne of Solomon would be established forever.
1. Notice in the prayer of David that followed, he understood Nathan’s words to refer to his family (house) as the ruling “house”. He asked Jehovah, “What is my house that thou hast brought me thus far?” (v. 18); and, “thou hast spoken also of thy servant’s house for a great while to come; and this too after the manner of men. Several times he refers to the permanence of his house, as promised by God.
C. The “kingdom promises” that follow in the O.T. are amplifications of this promise to David. They would be fulfilled through the house or lineage of David. The Messianic expectations of Israel focused on these promises of a coming King and Kingdom like the reign of David.
- Isaiah 9:6-7 – 6 For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. 7 Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this. (notice again the connection between “Son” and “King”)
- Isaiah 16:5 – 5 In mercy the throne will be established; And one will sit on it in truth, in the tabernacle of David, Judging and seeking justice and hastening righteousness.”
- Isaiah 22:21-22 – 21 I will clothe him with your robe And strengthen him with your belt; I will commit your responsibility into his hand. He shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem And to the house of Judah. 22 The key of the house of David I will lay on his shoulder; So he shall open, and no one shall shut; And he shall shut, and no one shall open.
- Jeremiah 23:5 – 5 “Behold, the days are coming,” says the LORD, “That I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper, And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth.
- Jeremiah 30:8-9 – 8 ‘For it shall come to pass in that day,’ Says the LORD of hosts, ‘That I will break his yoke from your neck, And will burst your bonds; Foreigners shall no more enslave them. 9 But they shall serve the LORD their God, And David their king, Whom I will raise up for them.
- Ezekiel 34:23-24 – 23 I will establish one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them — My servant David. He shall feed them and be their shepherd. 24 And I, the LORD, will be their God, and My servant David a prince among them; I, the LORD, have spoken.
- Ezekiel 37:24-25 – 24 “David My servant shall be king over them, and they shall all have one shepherd; they shall also walk in My judgments and observe My statutes, and do them. 25 Then they shall dwell in the land that I have given to Jacob My servant, where your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell there, they, their children, and their children’s children, forever; and My servant David shall be their prince forever.
- Hosea 3:5 – 5 Afterward the children of Israel shall return and seek the LORD their God and David their king. They shall fear the LORD and His goodness in the latter days.
III. Jesus on the Throne of David – As we studied this morning, The promise to establish the throne of David was not completely fulfilled in the O.T. kings of David’s descent that reigned in Judah. In fact, God brought an end to the prosperity of David’s physical lineage as we viewed in Jeremiah 22.
A. Whose Throne is it Anyway? The Millenialist attempts to reconcile Jeremiah’s prophecy about no one from Coniah’s descent ruling on the throne in Judah by making a distinction in the throne of David, and the Throne of God. They teach that Jesus in now on the throne of David, but when He returns He will ascend to the throne of God.
1. That Jehovah’s and David’s throne are one and the same is clear from the following:
- Solomon sat on David’s throne: 1 Kings 2:24 – Now therefore, as the Lord lives, who has confirmed me and set me on the throne of David my father, and who has established a house for me, as He promised, Adonijah shall be put to death today!”
- Solomon sat on the Throne of the Lord: 1 Chron 29:23 – Then Solomon sat on the throne of the Lord as king instead of David his father, and prospered; and all Israel obeyed him. Therefore since the throne of David was the throne of Jehovah when Jesus sat down on His Father’s throne (Rev. 3:21), He sat down on the throne of David. Both terms apply to the seat of Jehovah’s rule: first, through David and his house, and then through Christ, the seed of David. Prophetically, the throne of the Messiah would be the throne of David for there was always only one throne.
B. The N.T. apostles confirm that Jesus was of the seed of David and exalted to the throne of David in His spiritual Kingdom.
1. The promise of Jesus’ incarnation. Luke 1:31-33 – 31 And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name JESUS. 32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David. 33 And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there will be no end.”
2. Peter proclaims that Jesus is the fulfillment of the Messianic promise given to David in Acts 2 (the first gospel sermon). Acts 2:22-36 22 “Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves also know –23 Him, being delivered by the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by lawless hands, have crucified, and put to death; 24 whom God raised up, having loosed the pains of death, because it was not possible that He should be held by it. 25 For David says concerning Him: ‘I foresaw the LORD always before my face, For He is at my right hand, that I may not be shaken. 26 Therefore my heart rejoiced, and my tongue was glad; Moreover my flesh also will rest in hope. 27 For You will not leave my soul in Hades, Nor will You allow Your Holy one to see corruption. 28 You have made known to me the ways of life; You will make me full of joy in Your presence.’ 29 “Men and brethren, let me speak freely to you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 30 Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne, 31 he, foreseeing this, spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades, nor did His flesh see corruption. 32 This Jesus God has raised up, of which we are all witnesses. 33 Therefore being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He poured out this which you now see and hear. 34 “For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he says himself: ‘The LORD said to my Lord, ‘Sit at My right hand, 35 Till I make Your enemies Your footstool.”‘ 36 “Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.”
3. Paul’s sermon at Antioch – Acts 13:21-23 – 21 And afterward they asked for a king; so God gave them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 22 And when He had removed him, He raised up for them David as king, to whom also He gave testimony and said, ‘I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after My own heart, who will do all My will.’ 23 From this man’s seed, according to the promise, God raised up for Israel a Savior — Jesus —
4. The apostles preached “Jesus“. Philip teaches Simon and the Samaritans: Acts 8:12-13 – But when they believed Philip as he preached the things concerning the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, both men and women were baptized. 13 Then Simon himself also believed; and when he was baptized he continued with Philip, and was amazed, seeing the miracles and signs which were done.
- Philip teaches the Ethiopian: Acts 8:35-38 – Then Philip opened his mouth, and beginning at this Scripture, preached Jesus to him. 36 Now as they went down the road, they came to some water. And the eunuch said, “See, here is water. What hinders me from being baptized?” 37 Then Philip said, “If you believe with all your heart, you may.” And he answered and said, “I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.” 38 So he commanded the chariot to stand still. And both Philip and the eunuch went down into the water, and he baptized him.
- Who is Jesus in apostolic preaching He is called “the root of Jesse” (Rom. 15:12), which means “descendant. Christ is called “the Root of David” (Rev. 5:5); and said of Himself, “I am the root and the offspring of David” (Rev. 22:16). He is “Lord of lords and King of kings” (Rev. 17:14) His throne is “forever and ever,” and the sceptre of His rule is “the sceptre of righteousness” (Heb. 1:8). “He is the Son of God, the King of Israel“
Conclusion: We cans see Jesus in the person and kingship of David. The kingdom of the Messiah (and His authority) was established through Jesus’ resurrection from the dead. He is alive and reigns on His throne. Those who submit to His will are citizens in His kingdom now. Col 1:13-14 – 13 He has delivered us from the power of darkness and conveyed us into the kingdom of the Son of His love, 14 in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins.